Repetition of this type of calculation for different conditions produces a design chart like that shown in figure 8 for the ethanolwater system. Introduction to column distillation distillation is the most common separation technique in chemical process industry, accounting for 9095% of the separation operations this is why more than a half of this course is devoted to distillation or column distillation, which includes binarymixture distillation. Distillation control is a challenging endeavour due to 1 the inherent nonlinearity of distillation, 2 multivariable interaction, 3 the non. The design for a new packed distillation column for consideration as a new experiment for the university of florida department of chemical engineering unit operations laboratory was created to demonstrate the separation of water and isopropanol ipr and to evaluate a parallel applied multicorrelation approach to creating a high accuracy. Design of such equipment should be carried out a priory to setup a process plant and thus, it is basic step in a chemical process. Mechanical design of equipment addresses the stress. The numbers of flowpaths of liquid on tray are 1, 2, 3 or 4 as per liquid capacity requirement of column. Article views are the countercompliant sum of full text article downloads since november 2008 both pdf and html across all institutions and individuals. Design concept of crude oil distillation column design. In nearatmospheric applications, pressure drop usually needs to be minimized to reduce the cost of energy for compression of the feed gas. The final column design used a 6 ft high packing of.
In batch operation, the feed to the column is introduced batchwise. What is turndown ratio of a distillation column and what. Engineering design guidelines distillation column rev. Moholkar,department of chemical engineering,iit guwahati.
Che396 senior design distillation 7 theory section 1. Practica in process engineering ii distillation introduction distillation is the process of heating a liquid solution, or a liquidvapor mixture, to derive o a vapor and then collecting and condensing this vapor. Plate and packed towers, number of plates, diameter and height of the. When the desired task is achieved, a next batch of feed is introduced. The vapourliquid equilibrium characteristics indicated by the shape of the equilibrium curve of the mixture will determine the number of stages, and hence the number of trays, required for the separation. The principles of vacuum distillation resemble those of fractional distillation commonly called atmospheric distillation to distinguish it from the vacuum method, except that largerdiameter columns are used to maintain comparable vapour velocities at reduced operating pressures. Graphical determination of a distillation column design step 1. Now, in this lecture we will mainly focus on design of packed distillation column. In designing a distillation column, the thermodynamics of the vapor and liquid phases must be understood. Rao, amit kumar, ashok kumar, devendra agarwal, abhishek sinha department of chemical engineering, indian institute of technology, kanpur 208016, india abstract. It is relatively straightforward to derive models of distillation columns.
In the simplest case, the products of a distillation process are limited to an overhead distillate and a bottoms, whose compositions. This may not give you a column that can handle upsets well, so you may want to design for a capacity slightly greater than that increasing the flows by about 20% might be wise. Pdf on dec 1, 2015, maneet goyal and others published design of distillation column for separating a mixture of benzene and toluene. It is particularly well suited for high purity separations since any degree of separation can be obtained with a. A sensitivity analysis was also done to make sure the column could withstand changing conditions like temperature and contaminant concentration. The stripping column was designed to meet the specifications set in the design conditions, while also being as costeffective as possible. Design of batch distillation columns using shortcut. The steps required for tray column design are shown in figure 5. High vacuum distillation in the column revamps structured is use to increase capacity and reduce. Design size a distillation column with condenser and reboiler operating at atmospheric pressure with constant reflux, to separate and purify an equimolar mixture of benzene i, toluene ii, ethylbenzene iii, and oxylene iv, containing 100 kmol of each, at molar fractions of 0.
If you are following the traditional approach, youve probably designed your column for reflux rates in the range of 1. A distillation column is sized by determining the diameter of the tower. In the earlier lecture i told you that for separation of 3 component mixture, we need minimum 2. A simple design method for multicomponent distillation columns d. Process design decisions and project economics by dr. To design a distillation column, start with vaporliquid equilibrium. Pdf design of distillation column for separating a mixture of. Chemical engineering design by nptel download book. Nptel chemical engineering chemical engineering design ii joint initiative of iits and iisc funded by mhrd page 2 of 30 lecture 1. An initial estimation of the tower diameter can be done based on the vapor and liquid loadings in the column. So, the basis of the design for these columns are that we determine the number of stages the location of the feed to the column and the reflux ratio. Thus the sizes, particularly the height, of distillation columns are determined by the vapour liquid equilibrium vle data for the mixtures. The vast majority of industrial distillation columns are equipped with trays or plates sometimes called decks in the petroleum industry located every feet up the column. Included in this guideline is an example of the data sheet used in the industry and a calculation spreadsheet for the engineering design.
We have worked out our flow rates using hysys and we obtained the following data. Introduction the typical gasliquid contacting operations include distillation, absorption, stripping, leaching and humidification. Chemical engineering chemical engineering design ii nptel. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by crossref and updated daily. Equilibrium separation column jordan university of. Packed hydraulic engineering design guideline author. The vaporliquid equilibrium vle determines the minimum number. Several mechanisticallybased models have also been developed to help the design and optimization of cssp distillation columns linek et al.
This design guideline covers the basic elements in designing a typical distillation column system, which includes column internals selection and sizing. Distillation and absorption are two most widely used mass transfer processes in chemical industries. Large if froth is expected, also allow space for crawling 12 to 24. Distillation a process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the application and removal of heat. Distillation columns are designed based on the boiling point properties of the components in the mixtures being separated.
It should be noted that the downcomer area occupies only a. Distillation operation, control, design and troubleshooting course for maintenance personnel introduction the success of every company depends of each employees understanding of the businesss key components. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Computer aided design of distillation column article pdf available in journal of applied sciences research 1117. Distillation principles chemical engineering, 200711, rvce.
Forced circulation reboilers with vertical or horizontal tubes boiling may be designed. Pdf extractive distillation is one of the popular methods being. Nptel chemical engineering chemical engineering design ii joint initiative of iits and iisc funded by mhrd page 36 of 41 ii. The most difficult part in the distillation column design is the description of this equilibrium between the vapour and the liquid. Nptel provides elearning through online web and video courses various streams. From a capacity viewpoint, a liquid rate greater than 6 gpm inch of weir weir loading, is the rate at which a higher number of flow paths should be considered.
Introduction to distillation column design principals and best practices. These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Distillation is based on the fact that the vapour of a boiling mixture will be richer in the components that have lower boiling points. Design of plate column for absorption and distillation involves many common steps of calculation such as determination of number of theoretical plates, column. What you need to know about distillation columns design.
Whatever be the earlier conception, today a chemical engineer is expected to be able to make complete design of a piece of chemical equipment. Atmospheric distillation in the refining process is the separation of crude oil into various fractions. So, to start with we do the complete material balance across distillation column. The liquid flows down in the column over a packing surface and the vapor or the gas moves countercurrently, up the column. Equilibrium separation column in equilibrium separation processes, two or more coexisting zones are created with preferential distribution of the different components involved in the process in each zone. With the mccabethiele method, the total number of necessary plates, as well as the feed plate location can bidd if i lbbe estimated, and some information can also be determined about the enthalpic condition of. Mandal, department of chemical engineering, iit guwahati. These trays promote mass transfer of light components into the vapor flowing up the column and of heavy components into the liquid flowing down the column. Packed distillation columns packed columns are used for distillation, gas absorption and liquidliquid extraction. In a distillation column, it is the ratio of maximum to minimum vapor load the trays can handle witho.
Column tray and packing design university of oklahoma. Employee training and development will unlock the companies profitability and reliability. Perform overall material and component balances to determine the. For example, in distillation a liquid and vapor zones are created and the components are separated in different proportions between these zones. To describe the degree of separation between two components in a column or in. Determine process operation variables assumed feed rate, composition, purity of distillate and bottoms, and the quality of the feed are known. Design of plate column for absorption and distillation involves. In contrast, continuous columns process a continuous feed stream. Distillationabsorption column design che 4253 design i 1800 or earlier now. Nptel chemical engineering chemical engineering design ii joint initiative of iits and iisc funded by mhrd page 33 of 41 lecture 6. Column diameter and pressure dropflooding determines the minimum possible diameter of the absorber column, and the usual design is for 60 to 80 percent of the flooding velocity. That is, the column is charged with a batch and then the distillation process is carried out. Therefore while designing the vessel stresses induced due to.
Multicomponentdistillation calculation methods are classified as rating or design methods. Throughout design, tradeoff decisions will be made to arrive at an optimal design using distillation column design best practices. Design and construction features of column internals 1. Pdf mechanical engineering design of ipa distillation column. The distillate flow rate of light key component that is a is. So, under which we will first consider design based on individual mass transfer. Mod05 lec01 introduction to distillation and phase diagrams. Catalytic cracking, cracking reactions, zeolite catalysts.
So, we start our lecture with sequencing of the distillation column. Petroleum refining petroleum refining vacuum distillation. Turndown ratio in any plant is the ratio of maximum to minimum throughput it can process to produce the products with the desired specifications. Cracking feedstocks and reactors, effect of process variables.309 752 781 40 161 416 1491 566 612 611 1034 1180 215 667 151 998 600 917 515 1402 41 1236 1402 668 811 602 1086 77 328 779 652 985 1175 1297 285 392 883 720 106 1211 79 768 621 41 90 1337 1445 282