University technology transfer takes many forms, primarily the annual migration of university graduates into the wider commercial world and the publication of research findings. One of the most significant elements for successful technology transfer is closed communication between transferring and transferred parties. We map the relative success of technology licensing to. Technology transfer refers to the acquisition or use of innovations or knowledge that is developed by other organizations or in other countries. Understanding technology transfer 1 the focus on technology transfer o innovation accounts for more than half of all economic growth in developed countries. The literatures on technology transfer and international technology transfer are extensive and varied in perspective from various disciplines which include political science, economics, sociology, public policy, marketing and management of technology kumar et al. Technology readiness level or trl is a widely used indicator of degree of development of a technology toward deployment on a scale of 19, with 9 being fully. The paper commences with an overview of technology transfer and some important existing models of technology transfer. Genetic engineering, bionics agricultural technology produces plants and. This paper challenges these efforts by exploring key management issues for university technology transfer offices ttos and the impact of location on the selection of appropriate commercialization models. Although technology transfer is an important source for knowledge and innovation, it is difficult to measure its success, and little research has been done to determine exactly what accounts for success.
The term technology transfer can be defined as the process of. Pdf understanding technology transfer researchgate. The global welfare implications of forced technology transfer. Movement of innovations, knowledge, and techniques from one organization or country to another through assistance, investment, licensing, trade, or training. Feb 08, 2015 technology transfer documentation are indicated as follows. Technology transfer is the mechanism by which the accumulated knowledge developed by a specific entity is transferred wholly or partially to another one to allow the receiver to benefit from such knowledge unido, 2004. The term is widely recognized, but the process is not well understood. Cooperative research and development agreements cradas patent licenses grants cooperative agreements technical assistance educational partnerships technology transfer. In particular, it emphasizes research on management practices and strategies for technology transfer. Transfer of technology and project planning and management. Pdf technology transfer is a process for applying known. Science, technology and innovation for sustainable. Technology transfer an overview sciencedirect topics.
The movement of scientific methods of production or distribution from one enterprise, institution or country to another, as through foreign investment. Section 1, motivating technology transfer, justifies the use of a technology transfer process and gives you a roadmap to the guidebooks contents. The aforementioned complexity and the large amount of literature that can be found on this subject make it necessary to discuss different models of technology transfer, to present and understand the elements involved, and to identify the relationship of technology transfer in the collaboration. Technology transfer is commonly acknowledged to be a. Markerts 1993 definition of technology transfer is the most typical she defined tech nology transfer as the development of a technol ogy in one setting that is. Spring, 1992 the international transfer of technology 211 world, 8 proposed that technology means the systematic knowledge for the manufacture of a product, for the application of a process or for the rendering of a service, including any integrally associated managerial and marketing techniques. Before executing the srl, it is necessary to define the concept of the tt model in the context of. Federal technology transfer act, and the national competitiveness technology transfer act of 1989 nctta, universities and contractors operating national laboratories were authorized to retain title to inventions created using federal funding, pursue patent protection, and license those inventions to third parties. The focus of this report is on structured efforts to realise and capture the commercial value of such basic bluesky research in. In response in to this report, epa has developed this manual and its companion publication waste transfer stations. Technology science of craft, from greek, techne, art, skill, cunning of hand. Federal technology transfer act ftta of 1986 technology transfer is a priority for government owned government operated gogo laboratories employees. Chinas forced technology transfer problem and what to. Vertical technology transfer occurs when information is transmitted from basic research to applied research, from applied research to development, and from development to production.
The laws of nature ultimately limit technological improvement in any field. This is different from ethernet or internet, which use variable packet sizes for data or frames. Success criteria and factors for technology transfer projects. These elements are not distinctive and separable factors but form a seamless web that constitutes technology woolgar, 1987. Pdf from technology generation to technology transfer. Asynchronous transfer mode atm is a switching technique used by telecommunication networks that uses asynchronous timedivision multiplexing to encode data into small, fixedsized cells. An overview of technology transfer and technology transfer models. This report made several recommendations to epa concerning proper and equitable siting and operation of transfer stations. Technology transfer, also known as tech transfer or technology commercialization, is the process by which valuable research, skills, knowledge, andor technology is delivered from government, colleges and universities, or other research institutions into the corporate environment where it can be nurtured and developed into a commercial product or service with wider application and distribution. Dec 18, 2012 before the technology transfer can take place, inventors must define and disclose the nature of their invention to the institutions technology transfer office.
Biorelated and agricultural technology biotechnology transforms living things into products or new forms of life. The movement of scientific methods of production or distribution from one enterprise, institution or country to another, as through foreign investment, international trade, licensing of patents rights, technical assistance or training. Examples of successful technology facilitation and existing. Definition of technology transfer in the definitions. Technology readiness levels definitions and descriptions. Information and translations of technology transfer in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
The journal of technology transfer, the official journal of the technology transfer society, provides an international forum for the exchange of ideas that enhance and build an understanding of the practice of technology transfer. Assignment of technological intellectual property, developed and generated in one place, to another through legal means such as technology licensing or franchising. Given that technology materialization in other words is the most tangible embodiment of an idea or a theory, to fully understand the concept of technology transfer the definition of intellectual property must be taken as the outset. Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology tot, is the process of transferring disseminating technology from the person or organization that owns or holds it to another person or organization.
Intellectual property is a set of laws enshrined to protect the creativity of human intelligence and thus. Appropriate technology definition of appropriate technology. The widespread use of this technology in animal breeding. Section 2, understanding the technology transfer process, introduces the technology transfer process, introduces technology transfer concepts, and gives you the information you need to start and use. Pdf technology transfer is a process for applying known technologies to new and novel applications. Such transfers occur in both directions, and the form of the information changes as it moves along this dimension. Defining the concepts of technology and technology transfer. Clearly define ownership of rights of inventions, creations, and improvements including in case of termination. Mackenzie and wajcman 1985 define technology as the integration of the physical objects or artifacts, the process of making the objects and the meaning associated with the physical objects. Definition of technology transfer in the dictionary. Thus, the technology of embryo transfer in farm animals was developed with money from cattle breeders rather than through traditional research funding 4. In another sense, technology transfer is to improve the technological capability of business enterprises in developing countries. Appropriate technology definition is technology that is suitable to the social and economic conditions of the geographic area in which it is to be applied, is environmentally sound, and promotes selfsufficiency on the part of those using it. Application over the years, techniques associated with embryo transfer have had many uses, especially in research.
Technology transfer issues and a new technology transfer model. Technology transfer to china guidance for businesses. Defining the concepts of technology and technology. Atm is the core protocol used over the synchronous optical. Technology transfer is a process for applying known technologies to new and novel applications. The term technology transfer can be defined as the process of movement of technology from one entity to another. Technology transfer models and elements in the university. Implementing a technology transfer project that could help address some of the important process management problems faced by managers of technology transfer projects and avoid common errors that they tend to make. Past researchers have viewed and defined the term technology from many. Technology transfer is the process by which basic science research and fundamental discoveries are developed into practical and commercially relevant applications and products. Pdf defining the concepts of technology and technology.581 232 530 865 283 249 336 966 154 22 1351 1267 1441 497 81 60 795 699 283 836 535 457 390 131 696 1332 110 1322 534 1213 397 235 38 1345 804 250 76 597 259 1293 1290